Book Detail: Crop Physiology
- Introduction – Importance of crop physiology in agriculture.
- Role and significance of water – diffusion, imbibition, osmosis and its significance, plasmolysis.
- Definition – field capacity, water holding capacity of soil and permanent wilting point.
- Absorption of water – mode of water absorption – active and passive absorption and factors affecting absorption.
- Translocation of solutes – phloem and xylem transport.
- Transpiration – types – Steward’s theory of mechanism – significance, factors affecting transpiration and guttation – antitranspirants.
- Mineral nutrition – introduction – criteria of essentiality of elements – macro, secondary and micronutrients – soil less culture – sand and hydroponics.
- Mechanism of uptake – physiological role of nutrients.
- Foliar diagnosis – nutritional and physiological disorders – foliar nutrition- fertigation
- Photosynthesis – requirements of photosynthesis – light, CO2, pigments and H20.
- Mechanism of photosynthesis – light reaction – cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation – Red drop – Emerson Enhancement Effect.
- Photosynthetic pathways – C3, C4 and CAM.
- Differences between C3, C4 and CAM pathways – Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Photorespiration – photorespiration process and significance of photorespiration.
- Respiration – Glycolysis, TCA and Pentose Phosphate Pathway.
- Oxidative phosphorylation – differences between oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. Respiratory quotient and energy budgeting in respiration.
- Factors affecting respiration – difference between photorespiration and dark respiration – role of respiration.
- Protein and fat synthesis.
- Photoperiodism – short day, long day and day neutral plants – phytochrome. Role of phytochrome in flowering and regulation of flowering.
- Transmission of stimulus – theories of flowering.
- Vernalisation – mechanism of vernalisation and its significance – devernalisation.
- Source sink relationship – yield components – harvest index and its importance
- Growth – growth curve, phases of growth and factors influencing growth
- Growth analysis – LAI, LAD, SLW, SLA, LAR, NAR, RGR and CGR in relation to crop productivity.
- Plant growth regulators – growth hormones – definition and classification – physiological role of auxins and GA.
- Physiological role of Cytokinin, Ethylene and ABA – synthetic growth regulators and their uses in crop productivity.
- Practical application of Plant Growth Regulators in crop productivity.
- Environmental stresses – water stress – physiological changes – adaptation to drought and amelioration.
- Temperature stress – Physiological changes – low and high temperature – chilling injury – tolerance – alleviation.
- Low light and UV radiation stresses – salt stress – physiological changes and alleviation.
- Global warming – Carbon Sequestration -physiological effects on crop productivity.
- Seed germination – physiological changes during seed germination.
- Abscission – senescence – ripening– types, causes, physiological and biochemical Changes and regulation.
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