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What is Milk ?


Milk is a whole, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of healthy milch animals, properly fed and kept, excluding that obtained within 15 days before and 5 days after calving. From nutrition point of view milk is the most neatly perfect food available to us.  The body needs more than thirty distinct materials in its food supply.  No single foodstuff supplies all of them but milk supplies nearly all.

Composition of milk of various mammals

Mammal Water Fat Protein Lactose Ash
Cow 86.6 4.6 3.4 4.9 0.7
Buffalo 84.2 6.6 3.9 5.2 0.8
Human 87.7 3.6 1.8 6.8 0.1
Goat 86.5 4.5 3.5 4.7 0.8
Ass 90.0 1.3 1.7 6.5 0.5
Camel 86.5 3.1 4.0 5.6 0.8
Porpoise 41.1 45.8 11.2 1.3 0.6
Cat 84.6 3.8 9.1 4.9 0.6
Elephant 67.8 19.6 3.1 8.8 0.7

Source: Outlines of Dairy Technology By Sukumar De


Types of Market Milk

Whole Milk

Milk as such, derived from the animals without altering the composition is termed as whole milk. When the milk is from cow it is known as cow milk and that from buffalo is known as buffalo milk. The minimum requirements of fat and S.N.F.  for these milks have been fixed by FSSAI  for different states and union territories.  In most of the states cow milk is supposed to contain fat not less than 3.5% and S.N.F. not less than 8.5%, whereas buffalo milk should contain fat not less than 6% and SNF not less than 9%.

Standardized Milk

This is milk that’s fat and SNF contents have been adjusted to a certain pre-determined level.  The standardization can be done by partially skimming the fat in the milk or admixing skim milk in proper proportions.  Under the FSSAI rules, the standardized milk should contain a minimum of 4.5% fat and 8.5% SNF.

 Toned Milk

Toned milk refers to milk obtained by the addition of water and skim milk powder to whole milk.  Under the FSSAI rules, toned milk should contain a minimum of 3% fat and 8.5% SNF.

Double Toned Milk

It is similar to toned milk, except that under the FSSAI rules, double toned milk should contain a minimum of 1.5%  fat and 9%  SNF.

Reconstituted Milk 

This refers to milk prepared by dispersing whole milk powder in water approximately in proportion of I part powder to 7-8 parts water.

Recombined Milk

This refers to the product obtained when butter oil, skim milk powder and water are combined in the correct proportion to yield fluid milk.  The milk fat may also be obtained from other sources, like unsalted butter, fresh sweet cream or plastic cream.  Under the FSSAI rules recombined milk should contain a minimum 3% fat and 8.5% SNF.

Filled Milk

When milk fat in milk is substituted with some vegetable oil or fat, it is termed as filled Milk.

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